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A Cyberattack Illuminates the Shaky State of Student Privacy


The software that many school districts use to trace students’ progress can record extremely confidential information on children: “Mental disability.” “Emotional Disturbance.” “Homeless.” “Disruptive.” “Defiance.” “Perpetrator.” “Excessive Talking.” “Should attend tutoring.”

Now these systems are coming under heightened scrutiny after a recent cyberattack on Illuminate Education, a number one provider of student-tracking software, which affected the private information of greater than one million current and former students across dozens of districts — including in Latest York City and Los Angeles, the nation’s largest public school systems.

Officials said in some districts the information included the names, dates of birth, races or ethnicities and test scores of scholars. At the least one district said the information included more intimate information like student tardiness rates, migrant status, behavior incidents and descriptions of disabilities.

The exposure of such private information could have long-term consequences.

“When you’re a foul student and had disciplinary problems and that information is now on the market, how do you get better from that?” said Joe Green, a cybersecurity skilled and parent of a highschool student in Erie, Colo., whose son’s highschool was affected by the hack. “It’s your future. It’s entering into college, getting a job. It’s every thing.”

Over the past decade, tech corporations and education reformers have pushed schools to adopt software systems that may catalog and categorize students’ classroom outbursts, absenteeism and learning challenges. The intent of such tools is well meaning: to assist educators discover and intervene with at-risk students. As these student-tracking systems have spread, nonetheless, so have cyberattacks on school software vendors — including a recent hack that affected Chicago Public Schools, the nation’s third-largest district.

Now some cybersecurity and privacy experts say that the cyberattack on Illuminate Education amounts to a warning for industry and government regulators. Even though it was not the most important hack on an ed tech company, these experts say they’re troubled by the character and scope of the information breach — which, in some cases, involved delicate personal details about students or student data dating back greater than a decade. At a moment when some education technology corporations have amassed sensitive information on tens of millions of faculty children, they are saying, safeguards for student data seem wholly inadequate.

“There has really been an epic failure,” said Hector Balderas, the attorney general of Latest Mexico, whose office has sued tech corporations for violating the privacy of kids and students.

In a recent interview, Mr. Balderas said that Congress had did not enact modern, meaningful data protections for college kids while regulators had did not hold ed tech firms accountable for flouting student data privacy and security.

“There absolutely is an enforcement and an accountability gap,” Mr. Balderas said.

In an announcement, Illuminate said that it had “no evidence that any information was subject to actual or attempted misuse” and that it had “implemented security enhancements to forestall” further cyberattacks.

Nearly a decade ago, privacy and security experts began warning that the spread of sophisticated data-mining tools in schools was rapidly outpacing protections for college kids’ personal information. Lawmakers rushed to reply.

Since 2014, California, Colorado and dozens of other states have passed student data privacy and security laws. In 2014, dozens of K-12 ed tech providers signed on to a national Student Privacy Pledge, promising to take care of a “comprehensive security program.”

Supporters of the pledge said the Federal Trade Commission, which polices deceptive privacy practices, would find a way to carry corporations to their commitments. President Obama endorsed the pledge, praising participating corporations in a significant privacy speech on the F.T.C. in 2015.

The F.T.C. has an extended history of fining corporations for violating children’s privacy on consumer services like YouTube and TikTok. Despite quite a few reports of ed tech corporations with problematic privacy and security practices, nonetheless, the agency has yet to implement the industry’s student privacy pledge.

In May, the F.T.C. announced that regulators intended to crack down on ed tech corporations that violate a federal law — the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act — which requires online services aimed toward children under 13 to safeguard their personal data. The agency is pursuing a lot of nonpublic investigations into ed tech corporations, said Juliana Gruenwald Henderson, an F.T.C. spokeswoman.

Based in Irvine, Calif., Illuminate Education is considered one of the nation’s leading vendors of student-tracking software.

The company’s site says its services reach greater than 17 million students in 5,200 school districts. Popular products include an attendance-taking system and an internet grade book in addition to a faculty platform, called eduCLIMBER, that permits educators to record students’ “social-emotional behavior” and color-code children as green (“on course”) or red (“not on course”).


July 29, 2022, 4:32 p.m. ET

Illuminate has promoted its cybersecurity. In 2016, the corporate announced that it had signed on to the industry pledge to point out its “support for safeguarding” student data.

Concerns a couple of cyberattack emerged in January after some teachers in Latest York City schools discovered that their online attendance and grade book systems had stopped working. Illuminate said it temporarily took those systems offline after it became aware of “suspicious activity” on a part of its network.

On March 25, Illuminate notified the district that certain company databases had been subject to unauthorized access, said Nathaniel Styer, the press secretary for Latest York City Public Schools. The incident, he said, affected about 800,000 current and former students across roughly 700 local schools.

For the affected Latest York City students, data included first and last names, school name and student ID number in addition to at the least two of the next: birth date, gender, race or ethnicity, home language and sophistication information like teacher name. In some cases, students’ disability status — that’s, whether or not they received special education services — was also affected.

Latest York City officials said they were outraged. In 2020, Illuminate signed a strict data agreement with the district requiring the corporate to safeguard student data and promptly notify district officials within the event of a knowledge breach.

City officials have asked the Latest York attorney general’s office and the F.B.I. to analyze. In May, Latest York City’s education department, which is conducting its own investigation, instructed local schools to stop using Illuminate products.

“Our students deserved a partner that focused on having adequate security, but as a substitute their information was left in danger,” Mayor Eric Adams said in an announcement to The Latest York Times. Mr. Adams added that his administration was working with regulators “as we push to carry the corporate fully accountable for not providing our students with the safety promised.”

The Illuminate hack affected a further 174,000 students in 22 school districts across the state, in keeping with the Latest York State Education Department, which is conducting its own investigation.

Over the past 4 months, Illuminate has also notified greater than a dozen other districts — in Connecticut, California, Colorado, Oklahoma and Washington State — concerning the cyberattack.

Illuminate declined to say what number of school districts and students were affected. In an announcement, the corporate said it had worked with outside experts to analyze the safety incident and had concluded that student information was “potentially subject to unauthorized access” between Dec. 28, 2021, and Jan. 8, 2022. At the moment, the statement said, Illuminate had five full-time employees dedicated to security operations.

Illuminate kept student data on the Amazon Web Services online storage system. Cybersecurity experts said many corporations had inadvertently made their A.W.S. storage buckets easy for hackers to seek out — by naming databases after company platforms or products.

Within the wake of the hack, Illuminate said it had hired six additional full-time security and compliance employees, including a chief information security officer.

After the cyberattack, the corporate also made quite a few security upgrades, in keeping with a letter Illuminate sent to a college district in Colorado. Amongst other changes, the letter said, Illuminate instituted continuous third-party monitoring on all of its AW.S. accounts and is now enforcing improved login security for its A.W.S. files.

But during an interview with a reporter, Greg Pollock, the vp for cyber research at UpGuard, a cybersecurity risk management firm, found considered one of Illuminate’s A.W.S. buckets with an easily guessable name. The reporter then found a second A.W.S. bucket named after a preferred Illuminate platform for schools.

Illuminate said it couldn’t provide details about its security practice “for security reasons.”

After a spate of cyberattacks on each ed tech corporations and public schools, education officials said it was time for Washington to intervene to guard students.

“Changes on the federal level are overdue and will have a right away and nationwide impact,” said Mr. Styer, the Latest York City schools spokesman. Congress, as an example, could amend federal education privacy rules to impose data security requirements on school vendors, he said. That may enable federal agencies to levy fines on corporations that did not comply.

One agency has already cracked down — but not on behalf of scholars.

Last 12 months, the Securities and Exchange Commission charged Pearson, a significant provider of assessment software for schools, with misleading investors a couple of cyberattack through which the birth dates and email addresses of tens of millions of scholars were stolen. Pearson agreed to pay $1 million to settle the costs.

Mr. Balderas, the attorney general, said he was infuriated that financial regulators had acted to guard investors within the Pearson case — whilst privacy regulators did not step up for schoolchildren who were victims of cybercrime.

“My concern is there might be bad actors who will exploit a public school setting, especially after they think that the technology protocols are usually not very robust,” Mr. Balderas said. “And I don’t know why Congress isn’t terrified yet.”

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