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Goldman’s (GS) Apple Card business has a surprising subprime problem


The weakest American borrowers are beginning to miss payments and default on their loans, and that’s showing up at a surprising place: Goldman Sachs.

While competitors like Bank of America enjoy repayment rates at or near record levels, Goldman’s loss rate on bank card loans hit 2.93% within the second quarter. That is the worst amongst big U.S. card issuers and “well above subprime lenders,” in line with a Sept. 6 note from JPMorgan.

The profile of Goldman’s card customers actually resembles that of issuers known for his or her subprime offerings. Greater than 1 / 4 of Goldman’s card loans have gone to customers with FICO scores below 660, in line with filings. That would expose the bank to higher losses if the economy experiences a downturn, as is predicted by many forecasters.

“Persons are losing their jobs and also you had inflation at 40-year highs; that can impact the subprime cohort more because they reside paycheck to paycheck,” Michael Taiano, a senior director at Fitch Rankings, said in an interview. “With Goldman the query shall be, were they growing too fast right into a late-cycle period?”

The dynamic comes at a sensitive time for CEO David Solomon. Under pressure to enhance the bank’s stock price, Goldman’s money-losing consumer operations have drawn headlines and the ire of some investors and insiders. The investment bank began its foray into consumer finance in 2016 to diversify from its traditional strengths of Wall Street trading and advisory activities.

However the journey has been a bumpy one, marked by leadership turnover and staff departures, missed product deadlines, confusion over branding, a regulatory probe and mounting losses.

Goldman Sachs CEO David Solomon performs at Schimanski night club in Brooklyn, Latest York.

Trevor Hunnicutt | Reuters

Solomon will likely face questions from directors in regards to the consumer business at a board meeting later this week, in line with individuals with knowledge of the matter. There’s internal dissent about who Solomon has picked to guide key businesses, and insiders hope he puts stronger managers in place, the people said. Some feel as if Solomon, who moonlights as a DJ on the international festival circuit, has been too extroverted, putting his own personal brand ahead of the bank’s, the people said.

A viral hit

Goldman’s bank card business, anchored by the Apple Card since 2019, has arguably been the corporate’s biggest success yet when it comes to gaining retail lending scale. It’s the most important contributor to the division’s 14 million customers and $16 billion in loan balances, a figure that Goldman said would nearly double to $30 billion by 2024.

But rising losses threaten to mar that picture. Lenders deem bad loans “charge-offs” after a customer misses payments for six months; Goldman’s 2.93% net charge-off rate is double the 1.47% rate at JPMorgan’s card business and better than Bank of America’s 1.60%, despite being a fraction of those issuers’ size.

Goldman’s losses are also higher than that of Capital One, the most important subprime player amongst big banks, which had a 2.26% charge-off rate.

“If there’s one thing Goldman is presupposed to be good at, its risk management,” said Jason Mikula, a former Goldman worker who now consults for the industry.  “So how have they got charge-off rates comparable to a subprime portfolio?”

Apple Card

The most important reason is because Goldman’s customers have been with the bank for lower than two years on average, in line with individuals with knowledge of the business.

Charge-off rates are inclined to be highest through the first few years a user has a card; as Goldman’s pool of shoppers ages and struggling users drop out, those losses should calm down, the people said. The bank leans on third-party data providers to match metrics with similar cards of the identical vintage and is comfortable with its performance, the people said.

Other banks also are inclined to be more aggressive in in search of to get well debt, which improves competitors’ net charge-off figures, the people said.

But one other factor is that Goldman’s biggest credit product, the Apple Card, is aimed toward a broad swath of the country, including those with lower credit scores. Early in its rollout, some users were stunned to learn they’d been approved for the cardboard despite checkered credit histories.

“Goldman has to play in a broader credit spectrum than other banks, that is a part of the difficulty,” said a one that once worked on the Latest York-based bank, who asked for anonymity to talk candidly about his former employer. “They haven’t any direct-to-consumer offering yet, and when you’ve the Apple Card and the GM card, you’re looking at Americana.”

Spitting distance

After the 2008 financial crisis attributable to undisciplined lending, most banks shifted to serving the well-off, and competitors including JPMorgan and Bank of America are inclined to give attention to higher-end borrowers. The exception amongst big banks was Capital One, which focuses more on subprime offerings after buying HSBC’s U.S. card business in 2011.

Capital One says 30% of its loans were to customers with FICO scores below 660, a band that incorporates near-prime and subprime users. That is inside spitting distance of Goldman’s proportion of sub-660 customers, which was 28% as of June.

Meanwhile, JPMorgan said 12% of its loans were to users with below-660 scores, and Bank of America said that 3.7% of loans were tied to FICO scores under 620.

After a period during which borrowers fortified by Covid pandemic stimulus checks repaid their debts like never before, it’s the industry’s “newer entrants” which can be “showing much faster weakening” in credit metrics, JPMorgan analyst Vivek Juneja wrote last week.

“Goldman’s bank card net change-off ratio has risen sharply prior to now 3 quarters,” he wrote. That is going on “despite unemployment remaining very low at 3.7% in August, much like 2019 levels.”

Mounting losses

That has forced the bank to put aside more reserves for potential future credit losses. The buyer business is heading in the right direction to lose $1.2 billion this yr in line with internal projections, Bloomberg reported in June. The “overwhelming majority” of the patron investments this yr are tied to constructing loan reserves, thanks partly to latest regulations that force banks to front-load their loss reserves, Solomon told analysts in July.

That figure could worsen if a recession forces them to put aside extra money for soured loans, executives have acknowledged.

The difficulties seem to verify among the skepticism Goldman faced when it beat out established card players to win the Apple Card account in 2019. Rivals said the bank could struggle to succeed in profitability on the no-fee card.

“Bank cards are a tough business to interrupt into,” said Taiano, the Fitch Rankings director. “Goldman already faces higher losses because their book of business is young. But while you layer on worse unemployment, you’re exacerbating that trend.”

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