Nestled near Europe’s rooftop, Finland spent a long time leveraging its location to grow to be a preferred gateway for Asian travelers. Its flagship airline, Finnair, offered flights from Tokyo, Seoul and Shanghai to Helsinki that, by crossing over Russia, were hours shorter than flights to another European capital. Airport chiefs invested nearly $1 billion in a latest terminal with streamlined transfers. There have been signs in Japanese, Korean and Chinese, and hot water dispensers for the fast noodle packets favored by Chinese tourists.
Then Russia sent troops across Ukraine’s border on Feb. 24, and overnight the rigorously constructed game table was overturned.
Russia closed its airspace to most European carriers in response to bans on Russian planes. What was once a nine-hour flight to Helsinki when routed over Russia’s 3,000-mile expanse would now take 13 hours and as much as 40 percent more fuel since it needed to swoop around borders.
Finnair’s competitive advantage because the fastest connection from Asia and a travel hub for Europe vanished in a wisp.
The sudden disintegration of Finnair’s business model is an element of the wide-ranging economic upheaval that the war in Ukraine is causing for businesses across the globe.
Corporations that invested or traded heavily with Russia were immediately affected, and greater than 1,000 have withdrawn operations from Russia, based on a database compiled by the Yale School of Management.
High energy prices have blitzed a wider range. The Hungarian Opera House’s Erkel Theater will temporarily close since it cannot pay its energy bill. Hakle, certainly one of the most important manufacturers of bathroom paper in Germany, declared insolvency due to soaring energy costs, while ceramic, glass, chemical, fertilizer and other factories across Europe have been forced to reduce or shut down.
The snack food industry, unable to get sufficient supplies of sunflower oil from Ukraine, has needed to scramble for substitutes like palm oil, forcing manufacturers to rejigger supply chains, production and labeling, since they might now not boast that their products were “nonallergenic” and “non-G.M.O.”
The closed airspace caused Japan Airlines and ANA to cancel flights to Europe. And this month Virgin Atlantic said it was ceasing all traffic to and from Hong Kong due to Russia’s ban. For Finnair, though, the fallout has been extreme.
“The Asia strategy had been 20 years within the making,” Topi Manner, Finnair’s chief executive, said from the corporate’s headquarters, next to the Helsinki terminal in Vantaa. Services were tailored to fulfill the tastes of its Asian customers. Half of its in-flight movies are dubbed or subtitled in Japanese, Korean and Chinese. Meal offerings include crispy chicken in Chinese garlic and oyster sauce and Korean-style stir-fried pork in spicy sauce with bok choy and steamed rice. The airline’s ground staff in Helsinki are fluent within the region’s native languages.
Before the coronavirus pandemic, half of the airline’s revenue was generated by travelers from Asia. Passengers that used Helsinki as a hub to transfer to other destinations accounted for 60 percent of the revenue.
But with “no end in sight” to the war, Mr. Manner said, the airline’s management quickly concluded “that Russian airspace will remain closed to European carriers for a very long time and we want to adapt to that reality.”
This summer, Finnair operated 76 flights between Helsinki and Asia, in comparison with 198 in the summertime of 2019. Overall, the airline goes at 68 percent of its capability. Operating losses in the primary half of this 12 months amounted to 217 million euros.
“We actually must regroup,” Mr. Manner said.
In some respects, Finnair has been regrouping ever because the pandemic hit in early 2020 and virtually halted world travel. China’s “zero Covid” policy, which continued to lock down Shanghai and other major cities this 12 months, sharply reduced East-West traffic, hampering Finnair’s recovery compared with airlines which have large domestic markets or operate in other regions. Finnair, half of which is owned by the federal government, fought to survive by furloughing employees, cutting costs and raising 3 billion euros in latest financing.
“We created a path through the pandemic,” Mr. Manner said, however it at all times was intended to guide “back to the Asia strategy.”
Now not. Last month, the corporate officially announced an about-face.
“We began to pivot our network toward the West,” Mr. Manner said, expanding its partnership with American Airlines, British Airways and other carriers. Within the spring, it launched 4 latest weekly flights from Dallas-Fort Value and three from Seattle. Recent routes from Helsinki to Stockholm, Copenhagen, Mumbai, India, and Doha, Qatar, have also been unveiled. As jet fuel prices skyrocket, the airline can be renting out planes and crews to other airlines, and it plans to shrink the dimensions of its fleet and staff, and to slash costs.
Finnair, which has lost 1.3 billion euros over the past three years, said it hoped to return to profitability in 2024.
“It is going to take a while before the corporate gets to see if that is the appropriate decision,” said Jaakko Tyrväinen, an airline analyst with SEB, a Nordic financial services group.
For the brand new Helsinki terminal — which opened in June — a technique shift was also needed.
An estimated 30 million passengers were expected by 2030, up from the nearly 22 million that the present terminals handled in 2019. Those projections are actually irrelevant, and airport officials say the situation is simply too uncertain to make any meaningful update to that figure. Next 12 months, 15 million travelers are expected to go through.
Perhaps more pointedly, the project, begun nearly a decade ago, was designed to enhance services for transfer passengers from Asia — a majority of whom would never leave the airport.
A multimedia publicity campaign that Finavia, the state-owned company that runs the country’s airline terminals, rolled out in 2017 for Helsinki airport — code letters HEL — primarily targeted customers from China. With a nod to the 2004 film “The Terminal,” the campaign, “Life in HEL,” featured Ryan Jhu, a preferred Chinese actor and social media influencer, living for a month within the terminal.
Now, Helsinki has an expansive latest terminal dedicated to non-European transfer traffic but only a few travelers.
On a recent weekday afternoon, the long, snaking lanes created to handle crowds at passport control were deserted. The spacious aukio, or meeting plaza, where passengers could sit and watch a wraparound video installation depicting Finnish landscapes, hosted a lone woman with a backpack. Moomin Shop, which sells merchandise related to the Finnish cartoon characters — particularly popular with Japanese visitors — had no customers. The Moomin cafe, farther down the major hallway, was mostly deserted.
“Mornings are normally slow,” said Liccely Del Carpio, who works on the Moomin store, adding that business often picks up later within the afternoon. “All in all, it’s been OK.”
The European terminal was bustling, but many of the shops and cafes that stretched along this terminal’s long hall were empty. Several other spaces were unleased or shuttered.
Sami Kiiskinen, the vice chairman of airport development at Finavia, said that the a whole bunch of hundreds of thousands of euros in loans used to construct the airport would ultimately be repaid, but that “the schedule of paybacks should be reconsidered.” Negotiations are happening, he said.
Yet, despite the likelihood that the war in Ukraine will drag on and Russian airspace will remain closed to European traffic, Mr. Kiiskinen is optimistic.
“We still consider in our strategy,” he said. Major infrastructure developments like airports are designed on a 50-year horizon, he said. “Putin isn’t going to be there eternally.”