‘The Triumph of the Wolf’
An indignant mob dragged Haiti’s president from the French Consulate and killed him in July 1915, a part of the political upheaval Wall Street feared — and, some historians say, worsened by withholding money from the shaky Haitian government and seizing the gold.
American troops occupied the country the identical day.
The invasion followed an in depth plan that the US Navy had drawn up the previous 12 months. American soldiers took over the presidential office and the customs houses that handled import and export taxes.
The Americans installed a puppet government, and by that fall Haiti had signed a treaty giving the US full financial control. The US appointed American officials, whom they called advisers, however the term hardly conveyed their true power: They oversaw Haiti’s revenue collection and approved, or denied, its expenses.
Martial law became the rule of the land. Private newspapers were muzzled and journalists jailed.
The Americans explained the invasion by saying Haiti was certain to fall to the Europeans, particularly Germany.
“If the US had not assumed the responsibility, another power would,” Secretary of State Lansing, who had replaced Bryan a month before the occupation, later said.
Lansing was also blinkered by racial prejudice. He once wrote that Black people were “ungovernable” and had “an inherent tendency to revert to savagery and to solid aside the shackles of civilization that are irksome to their physical nature.”
Racism shaped many elements of the occupation. Many administrators appointed by the US got here from Southern states and made no bones in regards to the worldview they brought with them.
John A. McIlhenny, an heir to Louisiana’s Tabasco sauce fortune who had fought in Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders cavalry throughout the Spanish-American War, was appointed American financial adviser in 1919, with broad authority over Haiti’s budget.
At one official luncheon before his appointment, McIlhenny couldn’t stop observing a Haitian government minister because, as he later told Franklin D. Roosevelt, “that man would have brought $1,500 at auction in Latest Orleans in 1860 for stud purposes.”
Soon after the occupation, the American overseers began constructing roads to attach Haiti’s mountainous interior to its coast. To achieve this, they resurrected corvée, a Nineteenth-century Haitian law for indentured labor.
The law required residents to work on public works projects near their homes for a couple of days a 12 months in lieu of paying taxes. However the American military, together with a constabulary it trained and oversaw, seized men and compelled them to work removed from home for no pay. Wealthy Haitians paid their way out of indentured labor, however the law entrapped the poor.
Haitians saw this as a return of slavery and revolted. Armed men, called cacos, fled to the mountains and started an insurgency against American forces. Laborers forced into corvée fled their captors and joined the fight. One leader of the cacos, Charlemagne Péralte, invoked Haiti’s revolution against France to call on his countrymen to “throw the invaders into the ocean.”
“The occupation has insulted us in every way,” read one poster plastered on partitions in Port-au-Prince, the capital.
“Long live independence,” the poster read. “Down with the Americans!”
The US responded forcefully. Soldiers certain employees in rope to maintain them from fleeing. Anyone who attempted to flee corvée labor was treated like a deserter, and plenty of were shot. As a warning, the Americans killed Péralte and distributed a picture of his corpse tied to a door, evoking a crucifixion.
Leaked military documents from the time showed that the “indiscriminate killing of natives has gone on for a while,” with 3,250 Haitians killed. When Congress began investigating in 1921, the American military lowered the number, saying that 2,250 Haitians had been killed within the occupation, a figure Haitian officials denounced as an undercount. As many as 16 American soldiers died, as well.
“It was a strict military regime, the triumph of the wolf,” Antoine Bervin, a Haitian journalist and diplomat, wrote in 1936.
The primary few years after the invasion brought little economic profit to Haiti. American advisers appointed by the US president collected as much as 5 percent of Haiti’s total revenues in salaries and expenses — more, at times, than the spending on public health for the whole country.
In 1917, the US directed Haiti’s National Assembly to ratify a latest Structure to permit foreigners to own land. Since independence, Haitians had outlawed foreign land ownership as an emblem of their freedom and a bulwark against invasion.
When Haitian lawmakers refused to vary the Structure, General Butler dissolved parliament by what he called “genuinely Marine Corps methods”: Soldiers marched into the National Assembly and compelled lawmakers to disperse at gunpoint. The Americans then pushed through a latest Structure that Franklin Roosevelt later claimed at a campaign rally to have written himself.
American businesses leased hundreds of acres of land for plantations, forcing farmers to either function low-cost labor at home or migrate to neighboring countries for higher pay. The Haitian-American Sugar Company once boasted to investors that it paid only 20 cents for a day’s value of labor in Haiti, compared with $1.75 in Cuba.
In accordance with the Haitian historian Suzy Castor, women and kids in Haiti were paid 10 cents a day.
Displaced farmers went to Cuba and the Dominican Republic, setting off what some historians say is essentially the most lasting effect of the American occupation: the mass migration of Haitians to other countries within the Americas.
“That is the large legacy,” said Weibert Arthus, Haiti’s ambassador to Canada and a historian.
As Secretary of State Bryan suggested in his letter before the invasion, Farnham was not satisfied with a share of Haiti’s national bank, so he worked with the State Department to orchestrate a full takeover. By 1920, National City Bank had bought out all shares of the national bank for $1.4 million, effectively replacing the French because the dominant financial power in Haiti.
With Haiti’s national bank under his control, and the troops protecting American interests, Farnham began acting like an official envoy himself, often traveling aboard American warships, historians say.
“The word of Mr. Farnham supersedes that of anybody else on the island,” wrote James Weldon Johnson, the chief secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People, who visited Haiti in 1920.
Farnham was also not shy about his views on Haiti and its people.
“The Haitian will be taught to turn out to be a superb and efficient laborer,” he told senators investigating the occupation. “If let alone by the military chiefs he’s as peaceful as a baby, and as harmless.”
“In truth,” he continued, “today there are nothing but grown-up children.”