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Moon can have been siphoning water from Earth’s atmosphere for billions of years

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The moon can have been siphoning water from Earth’s atmosphere for billions of years, storing it up as ice deep inside craters, a recent study has found.

Research by the University of Alaska Fairbanks suggests that ions making up water are pulled in by the moon because it passes through a part of Earth’s magnetosphere.

This adds to other suspected methods, including bombardment from asteroids 3.5 billion years ago, and solar wind delivering oxygen and hydrogen ions. 

The team estimate there are as much as 840 cubic miles of surface permafrost or subsurface liquid water on the moon that escaped from Earth’s atmosphere – enough to fill North America’s Lake Huron – the eighth largest lake on the planet. 

The work, by lead writer, professor Gunther Kletetschka, adds to a growing body of research about water on the moon’s north and south poles, prime targets for a base.

The moon can have been siphoning water from Earth’s atmosphere for billions of years, storing it up as ice deep inside craters, a recent study has found

Finding water is vital to NASA’s Artemis project, the planned long-term human presence on the moon. NASA plans to send humans back to the moon this decade.  

‘As NASA’s Artemis team plans to construct a base camp on the moon’s south pole, the water ions that originated many eons ago on Earth may be utilized in the astronauts’ life support system,’ Kletetschka said.

Researchers based their estimate, of 840 cubic miles of water, on the bottom volume model calculation – one per cent of Earth’s atmospheric escape reaching the moon.

A majority of the lunar water is mostly believed to have been deposited by asteroids and comets that collided with the moon. 

Research by the University of Alaska Fairbanks suggests that ions making up water are pulled in by the moon as it passes through part of Earth's magnetosphere

Research by the University of Alaska Fairbanks suggests that ions making up water are pulled in by the moon because it passes through a part of Earth’s magnetosphere

This adds to other suspected methods, including bombardment from asteroids 3.5 billion years ago, and solar wind delivering oxygen and hydrogen ions

This adds to other suspected methods, including bombardment from asteroids 3.5 billion years ago, and solar wind delivering oxygen and hydrogen ions

Most was during a period often called the Late Heavy Bombardment, a period about 3.5 billion years ago when the solar system was a billion years old, and the early inner planets sustained unusually heavy impact from asteroids.

In addition to the traditional asteroid and comet source of water on the moon, scientists also suggest solar wind could possibly be a source.

Ice on the moon! Water buried in lunar rocks ‘that would at some point sustain a human colony’ was likely preserved by an ancient magnetic field 

Frozen water buried in rocks on the lunar surface can have been protected against intense sunlight by an ancient magnetic field surrounding the moon, study shows. 

Once extracted from rocks, the water could at some point be used to sustain future human settlements, experts said – providing each something to drink and ingredients for fuel.

Quite a few spacecraft have seen evidence of ice deep inside craters on the polar regions of the moon, where temperatures can drop to -418F as a result of sunlight’s inability to penetrate contained in the dark pits.

Nevertheless, solar winds can get inside, breaking down the ice formations molecule-by-molecule – which is why scientists have long been unclear how the moon’s ice has remained in place hundreds of thousands of years after arriving on a comet.

A recent study by a team from the University of Arizona, nonetheless, suggests that the water is preserved consequently of ‘magnetic anomalies’ surrounding certain craters, that are the remnants of the traditional magnetic field that after covered the moon.

Chatting with Science, the team say the anomalies ‘deflect the solar wind,’ and ‘could possibly be quite significant in shielding the permanently shadowed regions.’ 

The solar wind carries oxygen and hydrogen ions, which can have combined and been deposited on the moon as water molecules.

On this recent study, the team suggest that, along with solar wind carrying ions, and ancient bombardment, water arrived from the Earth’s atmosphere.

Kletetschka and his colleagues suggest hydrogen and oxygen ions are driven into the moon when it passes through the tail of the Earth’s magnetosphere, which it does on five days of the moon’s monthly trip across the planet. 

The magnetosphere is the teardrop-shaped bubble created by Earth’s magnetic field that shields the planet from much of the continual stream of charged solar particles.

Recent measurements from multiple space agencies, including NASA, ESA, JAXA and ISRO, revealed significant numbers of water-forming ions present throughout the moon’s transit through this a part of the magnetosphere.

These ions have slowly amassed for the reason that Late Heavy Bombardment, increasing over 3.5 billion years every time the moon passes through the magnetosphere.

The presence of the moon within the magnetosphere’s tail, called the magnetotail, temporarily affects a few of Earth’s magnetic field lines — those which are broken and which simply trail off into space for a lot of 1000’s of miles. 

Not all of Earth’s field lines are attached to the planet at each ends, as some have just one attachment point. 

The moon’s presence within the magnetotail causes a few of these broken field lines to reconnect with their opposing broken counterpart. 

When that happens, hydrogen and oxygen ions that had escaped Earth rush to those reconnected field lines and are accelerated back toward Earth.

The paper’s authors suggest a lot of those returning ions hit the passing moon, which has no magnetosphere of its own to repel them.

‘It’s just like the moon is within the shower – a shower of water ions coming back to Earth, falling on the moon’s surface,’ Kletetschka said.

The ions then mix to form the lunar permafrost, and a few is driven below the surface where it exists as liquid water.

The findings have been published within the journal Scientific Reports

NASA will land the primary woman and first person of color on the moon in 2025 as a part of the Artemis mission

Artemis was the dual sister of Apollo and goddess of the moon in Greek mythology. 

NASA has chosen her to personify its path back to the moon, which is able to see astronauts return to the lunar surface by 2025 –  including the primary woman and the following man.

Artemis 1, formerly Exploration Mission-1, is the primary in a series of increasingly complex missions that may enable human exploration to the moon and Mars. 

Artemis 1 can be the primary integrated flight test of NASA’s deep space exploration system: the Orion spacecraft, Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and the bottom systems at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida.  

Artemis 1 can be an uncrewed flight that may provide a foundation for human deep space exploration, and reveal our commitment and capability to increase human existence to the moon and beyond. 

During this flight, the spacecraft will launch on probably the most powerful rocket on the earth and fly farther than any spacecraft built for humans has ever flown.

It’s going to travel 280,000 miles (450,600 km) from Earth, 1000’s of miles beyond the moon over the course of a few three-week mission. 

Artemis 1, formerly Exploration Mission-1, is the first in a series of increasingly complex missions that will enable human exploration to the moon and Mars. This graphic explains the various stages of the mission

Artemis 1, formerly Exploration Mission-1, is the primary in a series of increasingly complex missions that may enable human exploration to the moon and Mars. This graphic explains the varied stages of the mission

Orion will stay in space longer than any ship for astronauts has refrained from docking to an area station and return home faster and warmer than ever before. 

With this primary exploration mission, NASA is leading the following steps of human exploration into deep space where astronauts will construct and start testing the systems near the moon needed for lunar surface missions and exploration to other destinations farther from Earth, including Mars. 

The desire take crew on a distinct trajectory and test Orion’s critical systems with humans aboard. 

Together, Orion, SLS and the bottom systems at Kennedy will have the ability to fulfill probably the most difficult crew and cargo mission needs in deep space.

Eventually NASA seeks to determine a sustainable human presence on the moon by 2028 consequently of the Artemis mission.

The space agency hopes this colony will uncover recent scientific discoveries, reveal recent technological advancements and lay the inspiration for personal corporations to construct a lunar economy. 

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